The disadvantages, in my view, will be related to habits or diseases that are gender-specific. For example:
They are usually rather territorial, so they run away more often, urinate in various places – both at home and at neighbours’ houses. In addition, they compete with other cats for space and females. The fights on rooftops are mainly led by males. This makes them targets of evil people who, bothered by the presence of cats, cause their death mainly through poisoning. (Environmental Crimes Law art. 32 n. 9605).
they are more relaxed in that respect, but they have the behaviour of running away intensified in heat. They enter the fertile period normally in spring and autumn, and last a few days. If they rub on furniture, walls and people, they vocalize a lot and these meows are very uncomfortable. When she mates with the male, she returns home and obviously after a few weeks she surprises you with a litter. For many tutors, this is the main disadvantage of having a female, because they don’t want the responsibility of caring or delivering several kittens for adoption.
Ps. I participate in an animal protection entity, and the demand for adoption of cats is smaller than for dogs. More than 95% of people who want cats, demand male – and only puppies. Adoption of adult cats is, in practice, almost impossible.
Male cats often acquire diseases from their habit of going out on the streets and fighting with other animals. Many diseases common in my region are IVF, FELV, dermatitis and sporotrichosis. In addition, males usually have DTUIF (Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease) more often than females, this due to their anatomical structures that differ in a question.
The females can also acquire diseases that I mentioned before, but a frequent pathology in the veterinary clinical routine are cats with pyometra, a uterine infection caused by the administration of prostagens. Many tutors do this to stop the heat of the females without knowing that it is creating a serious problem that can cause their death.
In the face of all this, I don’t see an advantage in one of the sexes. Although their love overcomes anything (for me), both have chances to bring “problems”. After all, it is an animal. A life. Not a teddy bear. But many of these problems can be easily solved through castration. This is because many cat habits are stimulated mainly by hormonal production. With castration, the males stop running, urinating frequently and make demarcation and dispute with other cats, and thus significantly reduces the chances of acquiring disease in the streets. And the females stop being in heat and ends any concern with “unwanted litters” that cause overpopulation of the species and increases the rate of abandonment of animals. They become homegrown and this is positive in several aspects, both in coexistence and health of the animal, increases logenvity, and prevents them from having contact with killer neighbors.
Remember that cats that live in apartments have very little chance of getting sick precisely because they do not leave. Just as females hardly have litters. But there will be the same problems with demarcation of territory and heat. So castration will always be indicated.